The techniques of time and motion, work study and method study.
Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of ways of work, in order to make improvements. Generally, method study follows the 'SREDIM' procedure - Select the work to analyse, Record in detail what happens, Examine critically the work, Develop the way things are done, Implement the developments and Maintain the new methods.
Time study is a work measurement technique where times for operations are recorded using a stopwatch, with an assessment of effort that the worker employs, to normallise the time to what is reasonable from both management and operator point of view.
Predetermined Motion Time Systems 'PMTS'
PMTS. Systems are work measurement techniques that evaluate the distances and types of moves employed in work situations. They give a predetermened time for certain distances and types of movement and therefore eliminate the need to effort rate the operators. The beauty of this type of system is that they are 'method sensitive', and will highlight where improvements can be made to the processes. These surprisingly simple systems are the most widely used of the work measurement techniques employed today.
An activity sample, which can also be effort rated like a time study, is a technique which follows statistical sampling guidelines, to observe a combination of workers and or machines at the same time. The sample should be taken over a representative time period and the correct amount of observations taken to be accurate enough. The sample will give a percentage time spent on the activities observed in the area and show where improvements are best made. An activity sample can also be used to generate a time standard if an output is recorded during the study period.